8. Rasul А. Amirov, Evgeniy V. Egorov

Russian Science: Past, Present, and Future

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Rasul А. Amirov

Associate Professor at the Department of Dagestan State University of the national economy, Ph.D. in Economics

D. Ataeva Str. 5, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367008

Evgeniy V. Egorov

Professor of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Doctor of Economics, Professor

Leninskie gory 1/61, Bld. 46, Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991

The present study outlines key stages in the establishment and development of Russian science.
Aim. This study analyzes the establishment and development of the Russian Academy of Sciences at the time of the Russian Empire, the scientific development in the Soviet era and during the 1990s in the context of a transformational systemic crisis, and the current state of scientific development, aiming to examine the prospects for accelerated development of Russian science amid new challenges.
Tasks. The authors identify major stages in the establishment and development of Russian science, examine the specific aspects of scientific organization and management in the country in the context of changing socio-economic systems, analyze the dynamics, organizational structure and financial structure of Russian science during the establishment and development of the market economy in modern Russia, examine the achievements and problems of scientific and technological development in the course of the transition from a resource export model of national economic development towards an innovative model, and analyze the prospects for an accelerated development of Russian science based on the current estimates and strategies for national scientific and technological development.
Methods. This study uses retrospective analysis of scientific development in Russia, based on the historical approach of its evolution, using a socio-economic approach, systems analysis, cross-country analysis, statistical and structural dynamic analysis, complex strategic approach, and the expert assessment methods.
Results. Based on the accelerated scientific and technological modernization, the current waves of innovation in various branches of the Russian economy should be developed through implementation of end-to-end information and communication technologies and development of a digital economy and information society. This requires balanced development of the three major fields of Russian science (academic, entrepreneurial, and institutional) by setting scientifically-based national priorities for the development of basic and applied research, R&D work, and technological solutions in each field.
Conclusion. A successfully implemented and well-funded strategy for the scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation along with the implementation of the National Technological Initiative should transform the Russian economic system into a modern, competitive, knowledge-driven economy based on a comprehensive and efficient national innovative ecosystem that would establish the 6th wave of innovation as a growing sector of the national economy, capable of closing the technological gap between Russian and the leading developed countries.

Keywords: science, scientific potential, scientific and technological development, research and development, brain drain, Russian Academy of Sciences


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