8. Rasul А. Amirov, Evgeniy V. Egorov

Russian Science: Past, Present, and Future

  • Contact details
  • Abstract
  • References

Rasul А. Amirov

Associate Professor at the Department of Dagestan State University of the national economy, Ph.D. in Economics

D. Ataeva Str. 5, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, 367008

Evgeniy V. Egorov

Professor of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Doctor of Economics, Professor

Leninskie gory 1/61, Bld. 46, Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991

The present study outlines key stages in the establishment and development of Russian science.
Aim. This study analyzes the establishment and development of the Russian Academy of Sciences at the time of the Russian Empire, the scientific development in the Soviet era and during the 1990s in the context of a transformational systemic crisis, and the current state of scientific development, aiming to examine the prospects for accelerated development of Russian science amid new challenges.
Tasks. The authors identify major stages in the establishment and development of Russian science, examine the specific aspects of scientific organization and management in the country in the context of changing socio-economic systems, analyze the dynamics, organizational structure and financial structure of Russian science during the establishment and development of the market economy in modern Russia, examine the achievements and problems of scientific and technological development in the course of the transition from a resource export model of national economic development towards an innovative model, and analyze the prospects for an accelerated development of Russian science based on the current estimates and strategies for national scientific and technological development.
Methods. This study uses retrospective analysis of scientific development in Russia, based on the historical approach of its evolution, using a socio-economic approach, systems analysis, cross-country analysis, statistical and structural dynamic analysis, complex strategic approach, and the expert assessment methods.
Results. Based on the accelerated scientific and technological modernization, the current waves of innovation in various branches of the Russian economy should be developed through implementation of end-to-end information and communication technologies and development of a digital economy and information society. This requires balanced development of the three major fields of Russian science (academic, entrepreneurial, and institutional) by setting scientifically-based national priorities for the development of basic and applied research, R&D work, and technological solutions in each field.
Conclusion. A successfully implemented and well-funded strategy for the scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation along with the implementation of the National Technological Initiative should transform the Russian economic system into a modern, competitive, knowledge-driven economy based on a comprehensive and efficient national innovative ecosystem that would establish the 6th wave of innovation as a growing sector of the national economy, capable of closing the technological gap between Russian and the leading developed countries.

Keywords: science, scientific potential, scientific and technological development, research and development, brain drain, Russian Academy of Sciences

References

  1. On the doctrine of the development of Russian science. Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of June 13, 1996, No. 884 (as amended on February 23, 2006). Available at: http://www.szrf.ru/szrf/doc.phtml?nb=100&issid=1001996025000&docid=4903. (in Russ.).
  2. The word about Lomonosov. Official website of Lomonosov Moscow State University. Available at: https://www.msu.ru/lomonosov/slovo.html. Accessed 17.12.2017. (in Russ.).
  3. Osipov G. V. The Academy of Sciences is under attack. Who and why wants to abolish the RAS. Nezavisimaya gazeta, 2001, February 23. Available at: http://www.ng.ru/ideas/2001-02-23/8_ran.html. (in Russ.).
  4. Berdashkevich A. P. Rossiyskaya nauka: sostoyanie i perspektivy [Russian science: State and prospects]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 2000, no. 3, pp. 118-123. Available at: http://www.isras.ru/files/File/Socis/03-2000/016.BERDASHKEVITCH.pdf.
  5. Rogov S. M. The unclaimed science is a threat to the security of the country. Nezavisimaya gazeta, 2010, February 08. Available at: http://www.ng.ru/ideas/2010-02-08/9_science.html. (in Russ.).
  6. On science and state scientific and technical policy. Federal Law of August 23, 1996 No. 127-FZ (as amended on May 23, 2016). Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_11507/. (in Russ.).
  7. Grudtsyna L. Yu., Dmitriev Yu. A., Ivanova S. A. et al. Nauchno-prakticheskiy kommentariy k Federal’nomu zakonu ot 23 avgusta 1996 g. № 127-FZ “O nauke i gosudarstvennoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy politike” (postateynyy) [Scientific and practical commentary to the Federal Law of August 23, 1996 No. 127-FZ “On science and state scientific and technical Ppolicy” (itemized)]. Moscow: Yurkompani Publ., 2012. 536 p.
  8. Regional scientific centers of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Official website of RAS. Available at: http://www.ras.ru/sciencestructure/regionalcenters.aspx. (in Russ.).
  9. On the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations. Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of September 27, 2013 No. 735. Available at: https://rg.ru/2013/09/27/fano-site-dok.html. (in Russ.).
  10. On the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations (together with the “Regulations on the Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations”). Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of October 25, 2013 No. 959 (as amended on June 3, 2017). Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_153687/. (in Russ.).
  11. On approval of priority directions of development of science, technologies and engineering in the Russian Federation, and of the list of critical technologies of the Russian Federation. Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of July 7, 2011 No. 899 (as amended on December 16, 2015). Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_116178/. (in Russ.).
  12. Russia in figures 2017: A brief statistical collection. Moscow: Rosstat Publ., 2017. 511 p. (in Russ.).
  13. Russian statistical yearbook, 2017. Moscow: Rosstat Publ., 2017. Available at: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b17_13/Main.htm. Accessed 17.12.2017.
  14. On the Strategy of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation. Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of December 01, 2016 No. 642. Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_207967/. (in Russ.).
  15. Russia and the countries of the world: Statistical collection. Moscow: Rosstat Publ., 2016. Available at: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b16_39/Main.htm. Accessed 24.12.2017. (in Russ.).

Subscribe to electronic version of the article